How to Use the Abbreviations i.e. and e.g.

i.e. and e.g. come from abbreviated Latin terms. i.e. comes from the Latin id est, which means ‘that is’, ‘namely’ or ‘in other words’. e.g. comes from the Latin exempli gratia, which means ‘for example’. Here are some examples of how to use e.g. correctly: ‘John had a large collection of classic cars, e.g. a Rolls Royce Phantom, a Phaeton and an MG, which he kept in a large warehouse.’ ‘Joan had errors in her essay, e.g. no commas.’ Bonus: Download our Quick Reference Guide for how to use i.e. and e.g.  Please note that when submitting essays or theses to universities in Australia, it is preferred that you only use e.g. within parentheses, such as in the following examples: …

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Apostrophes, Parentheses, Brackets and Ellipses

Apostrophes ’ Apostrophes are very handy indicators to use in sentences. They are used to indicate possession. Here are some examples: ‘John’s car was a different colour from my sister’s car.’ ‘I turned the corner to be confronted by my manager’s assistant.’ ‘The politician met his mother’s expectations but failed to meet his electors’ expectations.’ If the apostrophe is not used, then Johns and sisters become plural as if you are talking about more than one John or sister (as in electors, which is plural). Using the apostrophe makes a possessive. If you need to indicate possession at the end of a word that is a plural, like electors, you simply add it to the end. Parentheses and  Brackets (  ) [  ] Parentheses are used to enclose references or citations …

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Correct Use of the Phrase ‘Due to’

The phrase ‘due to’ tends to be overused in academic writing and, although it is becoming increasingly acceptable in modern usage, your writing will be more professional and concise if you understand when it is most appropriate. Often, ‘because’ or ‘because of’ should be used instead. If you could substitute ‘attributable to’, ‘caused by’ or ‘resulting from’ for ‘due to’ in your sentence, then you have probably used ‘due to’ correctly. It modifies nouns and is usually preceded by the verb ‘to be’ in one form or another. For example: ‘My fitness is due to regular exercise.’ In this sentence, ‘my fitness’ is the noun and ‘due to’ follows ‘is’, a form of the verb ‘to be’. In contrast, ‘because …

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But why can’t I use ‘as such’ instead of ‘therefore’?

It seems to be increasingly common for students, and others, to use ‘as such’ as a replacement for ‘therefore’ only to be corrected without really knowing why. If you think ‘as such’ and ‘therefore’ have the same meaning, read on. ‘Therefore’ is a conjunction (a part of speech that joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences) that according to The Macquarie Dictionary means ‘in consequence of that’, ‘as a result’ or ‘consequently’. ‘As such’ also acts as a conjunction but is different grammatically. The Macquarie Dictionary defines ‘as such’ to mean ‘being what is indicated’, ‘in that capacity’ or ‘in itself or themselves’. ‘Such’ in the phrase ‘as such’ acts as a pronoun (a part of speech used in the place …

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Grammar in Enid Blyton : “ Jolly Good ! ” said Dick, “just wait till I get it !

Did you notice any glaring errors in this blog’s title? If you didn’t, then I can only assume you worked for Enid Blyton’s English publisher, Dean & Son Ltd, during the 1960s.   I’ve been reading my old Enid Blyton books to my children for several years now (I cannot bear the recent editions, with all  references to ‘smacking’ removed, along with the names Dick and Fanny which are, apparently, inappropriate for the American market.) It is only since working as an editor that I’ve noticed substantial differences in punctuation between these editions and contemporary editing standards.   Apart from Enid Blyton’s constant use of exclamation marks! , here are some of Dean & Son’s rather quaint punctuation and grammatical …

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The Semicolon and its Usage

The semicolon is a commonly misunderstood punctuation mark. It may be useful to consider the semicolon as something between a comma and a full stop; it both separates and links the clauses it falls between. Though there are varying opinions about the instances where a semicolon is required, the three usages that follow are widely accepted and account for the vast majority, if not all, of such instances. To link independent clauses As with the full stop, the semicolon can be used to separate clauses that are grammatically independent; however, unlike the full stop, the semicolon links the two ideas that it separates. Linking similar ideas with a semicolon not only gives your concepts greater continuity, but will also help …

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